A capacitor is a component made of two or sets of two conductive plates with a thin insulator between them and wrapped in a ceramic and plastic container. When the capacitor receives a direct current (DC), a positive charge builds up on one of the plates (or set of plates) while a negative charge builds up on the other. This charge, which is measured in microfarads on a computer capacitor, remains in the capacitor until it is discharged. In the image to the right, is an example of what a capacitor may look like on a computer motherboard.
Another common type of capacitor is an electrolytic capacitor, which is a higher capacitance capacitor in a smaller package. In the bottom picture to the right, is a picture and an example of these types of capacitors.
Like any other component in a computer, capacitors in a computer can fail, and when they do will cause the computer or the component to fail. In the case of a motherboard, when a motherboard capacitor fails the computer will no longer boot, and the capacitor will need to be replaced or a new motherboard will need to be put in the computer.
In the below picture, is an example of an ABIT VP6 motherboard with blown capacitors and one example of how a capacitor may fail. Blown capacitors can be replaced, but for most users replacing the motherboard is often the easiest solution.