Extended special HTML characters and codes

Updated: 04/26/2017 by Computer Hope

HTML unprintable questionmarkSome characters in HTML require special codes known as extended HTML to be seen in a browser. If these codes are not used, you may see a box, question mark (see picture), garbage, or the page will not load. Most people encounter this problem when entering characters such as &,",>, and < .

In the case of the less than and greater than these characters cannot be used in your HTML code because the HTML markup is generated using these characters. Using these characters instead of the extended HTML code prevent the page from loading properly.

To insert a "<" or ">" or any extended HTML into your HTML instead of using these characters on your keyboard type the HTML extended code. For example, the less than ( < ) is "&lt;" and the greater than ( > ) is "&gt;". All extended HTML code begins with an ampersand (&) and is finished with a semicolon ( ; ). ISO codes are also shown below but can be more difficult to remember.

Tip: If you are using a WYSIWYG web page editor make sure you are inserting these codes into the HTML editor portion of the page and not the page layout or WYSIWYG section of the editor.

List of extended special HTML characters and code

Punctuation HTML Decimal Name or meaning
&ndash; &#8211; En dash
&mdash; &#8212; Em dash
¡ &iexcl; &#161; Inverted exclamation
¿ &iquest; &#191; Inverted question mark
" &quot; &#34; Quotation mark
' &apos; &#39; Apostrophe
&lsquo; &#8216; Left single quote
&rsquo; &#8217; Right single quote
« &laquo; &#171; Angled quotes or guillemet
» &raquo; &#187; Angled quotes or guillemet
  &nbsp; &#160; Non-breaking space
& &amp; &#38; Ampersand
¢ &cent; &#162; Cent
© &copy; &#169; Copyright
° &deg; &#176; Degree
÷ &divide; &#247; Divide
> &gt; &#62; Greater than
< &lt; &#60; Less than
µ &micro; &#181; Micron
· &middot; &#183; Middle dot
&para; &#182; Pilcrow (paragraph sign)
± &plusmn; &#177; Plus/minus
&euro; &#8364; Euro
π &pi; &#928; Pi
£ &pound; &#163; British Pound Sterling
® &reg; &#174; Registered
§ &sect; &#167; Section
¥ &yen; &#165; Japanese Yen
´ &#180; Acute accent with no letter grave
` &#96; Accent/reversed apostrophe with no letter
&larr; &#8592; Left arrow
&nwarr; &#8598; North West arrow
&uarr; &#8593; Up arrow
&nearr; &#8599; North East arrow
&rarr; &#8594; Right arrow
&searr; &#8600; South East arrow
&darr; &#8595; Down arrow
&swarr; &#8601; South West Arrow
  &#9745; Check mark box with checkmark
  &#10003; Checkmark
  &#10004; Checkmark
á &aacute; &#225; Lowercase "a" with acute accent
Á &Aacute; &#193; Uppercase "A" with acute accent
à &agrave; &#224; Lowercase "a" with grave accent
À &Agrave; &#192; Uppercase "A" with grave accent
â &acirc; &#226; Lowercase "a" with circumflex
 &Acirc; &#194; Uppercase "A" with circumflex
å &aring; &#229; Lowercase "a" with ring
Å &Aring; &#197; Uppercase "A" with ring
ã &atilde; &#227; Lowercase "a" with tilde
à &Atilde; &#195; Uppercase "A" with tilde
ä &auml; &#228; Lowercase "a" with diaeresis/umlaut
Ä &Auml; &#196; Uppercase "A" with diaeresis/umlaut
ā &#x0101; &#257; Lowercase "a" with line (macron)
Ā &#x0100; &#256; Uppercase "A" with line (macron)
æ &aelig; &#230; Lowercase "ae" ligature
Æ &AElig; &#198; Uppercase "AE" ligature
ç &ccedil; &#231; Lowercase "c" with cedilla
Ç &Ccedil; &#199; Uppercase "C" with cedilla
é &eacute; &#233; Lowercase "e" with acute accent
É &Eacute; &#201; Uppercase "E" with acute accent
è &egrave; &#232; Lowercase "e" with grave accent
È &Egrave; &#200; Uppercase "E" with grave accent
ê &ecirc; &#234; Lowercase "e" with circumflex
Ê &Ecirc; &#202; Uppercase "E" with circumflex
ë &euml; &#235; Lowercase "e" with diaeresis/umlaut
Ë &Euml; &#203; Uppercase "E" with diaeresis/umlaut
í &iacute; &#237; Lowercase "i" with acute accent
Í &Iacute; &#205; Uppercase "I" with acute accent
ì &igrave; &#236; Lowercase "i" with grave accent
ì &Igrave; &#204; Uppercase "I" with grave accent
î &icirc; &#238; Lowercase "i" with circumflex
Î &Icirc; &#206; Uppercase "I" with circumflex
ï &iuml; &#239; Lowercase "i" with diaeresis/umlaut
Ï &Iuml; &#207; Uppercase "I" with diaeresis/umlaut
ī &#x012B; &#299; Lowercase "i" with line (macron)
Ī &#x012A; &#298; Uppercase "I" with line (macron)
ñ &ntilde; &#241; Lowercase "n" with tilde
Ñ &Ntilde; &#209; Uppercase "N" with tilde
ó &oacute; &#243; Lowercase "o" with acute accent
Ó &Oacute; &#211; Uppercase "O" with acute accent
ò &ograve; &#242; Lowercase "o" with grave accent
Ò &Ograve; &#210; Uppercase "O" with grave accent
ô &ocirc; &#244; Lowercase "o" with circumflex
Ô &Ocirc; &#212; Uppercase "O" with circumflex
ø &oslash; &#248; Lowercase "o" with slash
Ø &Oslash; &#216; Uppercase "O" with slash
õ &otilde; &#245; Lowercase "o" with tilde
Õ &Otilde; &#213; Uppercase "O" with tilde
ö &ouml; &#246; Lowercase "o" with diaeresis/umlaut
Ö &Ouml; &#214; Uppercase "O" with diaeresis/umlaut
ß &szlig; &#223; ess-tsett
ú &uacute; &#250; Lowercase "u" with acute accent
Ú &Uacute; &#218; Uppercase "U" with acute accent
ù &ugrave; &#249; Lowercase "u" with grave accent
Ù &Ugrave; &#217; Uppercase "U" with grave accent
û &ucirc; &#251; Lowercase "u" with circumflex
Û &Ucirc; &#219; Uppercase "U" with circumflex
ü &uuml; &#252; Lowercase "u" with diaeresis/umlaut
Ü &Uuml; &#220; Uppercase "U" with diaeresis/umlaut
ū &#x016B; &#363; Lowercase "u" with a line (macron)
Ū &#x016A; &#362; Uppercase "U" with a line (macron)
ÿ &yuml; &#255; Lowercase "y" with diaeresis/umlaut

Tip: See our currency definition for a full listing of currencies and their associated HTML decimal values.