ATA

Short for Advanced Technology Attachment, ATA was first approved May 12, 1994, under the ANSI document number X3.221-1994 and is an interface used to connect such devices as hard drives, CD-ROM drives, and other disk drives. The first ATA interface is now commonly referred to as PATA, which is short for Parallel AT Attachment after the introduction of SATA. Today, almost all home computers use the ATA interface, including Apple computers, which use SATA.

The ATA standard is backwards compatible, which means new ATA drives (excluding SATA) can be used with older ATA interfaces. Additionally, any new feature introduced is also found in all future releases. For example, ATA-4 has support for PIO modes 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4, even though these were first introduced in ATA-1 and ATA-2.

Below is a listing of each of the ATA, IDE, and EIDE standards to help provide a better understanding of the history behind this interface, as well as an understanding of each interface's capabilities.

ATA, ATA-1, and IDE

ATA was first developed by Control Data Corporation, Western Digital, and Compaq and first utilized an 8-bit or 16-bit interface with a transfer rate of up to 8.3MBps, and support for PIO modes 0, 1, and 2. Today, ATA and ATA-1, are considered obsolete.

ATA-2, EIDE, Fast ATA, Fast IDE, and Ultra ATA

ATA-2, more commonly known as EIDE, and sometimes known as Fast ATA or Fast IDE, is a standard approved by ANSI in 1996 under document number X3.279-1996. ATA-2 introduces new PIO modes of 3 and 4, transfer rates of up to 16.6MBps, DMA modes 1 and 2, LBA support, and supports drives up to 8.4GB. Today, ATA-2 is also considered obsolete.

ATA-3, and EIDE

ATA-3 is a standard approved by ANSI in 1997 under document number X3.298-1997. ATA-3 added additional security features and the new S.M.A.R.T feature.

ATA-4, ATAPI-4, and ATA/ATAPI-4

ATA-4 is a standard approved by ANSI in 1998 under document NCITS 317-1998. ATA-4 includes the ATAPI packet command feature, introduces UDMA/33, also known as ultra-DMA/33 or ultra-ATA/33, which is capable of supporting data transfer rates of up to 33MBps.

ATA-5 and ATA/ATAPI-5

ATA-5 is a standard approved by ANSI in 2000 under document NCITS 340-2000. ATA-5 adds support for Ultra-DMA/66, which is capable of supporting data transfer rates of up to 66MBps, and has the capability of detecting between 40 or 80-wire cables.

ATA-6 and ATA/ATAPI-6

ATA-6 is a standard approved by ANSI in 2001 under document NCITS 347-2001. ATA-6 added support for Ultra-DMA/100 and has a transfer rate of up to 100MBps.

ATA layout

The above ATA interfaces on a 3.5-inch disk drives have a 40-pin connector and are capable of supporting up to two drives per interface. Note: 2.5-inch hard drives use a 50-pin connector and PCMCIA utilizes a 68-pin connector. Below is a description of each of the pins on a 40-pin ATA interface.

Pin Function Pin Function
1 Reset 2 Ground
3 Data 7 4 Data 8
5 Data 6 6 Data 9
7 Data 5 8 Data 10
9 Data 4 10 Data 11
11 Data 3 12 Data 12
13 Data 2 14 Data 13
15 Data 1 16 Data 14
17 Data 0 18 Data 15
19 Ground 20 Key
21 DDRQ 22 Ground
23 I/O Write 24 Ground
25 I/O Read 26 Ground
27 IOC HRDY 28 Cable Select
29 DDACK 30 Ground
31 IRQ 32 No Connect
33 Addr 1 34 GPIO_DMA66_Detect
35 Addr 0 36 Addr 2
37 Chip Select 1P 38 Chip Select 3P
39 Activity 40 Ground

Related pages

Also see: ATAPI, EIDE, IDE, Hard drive terms, SATA