Unix, Linux, and variant history

Updated: 11/30/2020 by Computer Hope
Year Event
1957 Bell Labs found they needed an operating system for their computer center that at the time was running various batch jobs. The BESYS operating system was created at Bell Labs to deal with these needs.
1965 Bell Labs was adopting third-generation computer equipment and decided to join forces with General Electric and MIT to create Multics (Multiplexed Information and Computing Service).
1969 By April 1969, AT&T decided to withdraw Multics and go with GECOS. When Multics was withdrawn Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie needed to rewrite an operating system to play space travel on another smaller machine (a DEC PDP-7 [Programmed Data Processor 4 K memory for user programs). The result was a system that a punning colleague called UNICS (Uniplexed Information and Computing Service)—an 'emasculated Multics'.
1969 Summer 1969 Unix was developed.
1969 Linus Torvalds was born on December 28, 1969.
1971 First edition of Unix released on November 3, 1971. The first edition of the Unix PROGRAMMER'S MANUAL [by] K. Thompson [and] D. M. Ritchie. It includes over 60 commands like: b (compile B program); boot (reboot system); cat (concatenate files); chdir (change working directory); chmod (change access mode); chown (change owner); cp (copy file); ls (list directory contents); mv (move or rename file); roff (run off text); wc (get word count); who (who is one the system). The main thing missing was pipes.
1972 The second edition of Unix was released on December 06, 1972.
1972 Ritchie rewrote B and called the new language the C language.
1973 Unix had been installed on 16 sites (all within AT&T/Western Electric); it was publicly unveiled at a conference in October.
1973 The third edition of Unix was released in February 1973.
1973 The fourth edition of Unix was released in November 1973.
1974 The fifth edition of Unix was released in June 1974.
1974 Thompson went to UC Berkeley to teach for a year, Bill Joy arrived as a new graduate student. Frustrated with ed, Joy developed a more featured editor em.
1975 The sixth edition of Unix was released in May 1975.
1975 Bourne shell was introduced begins being added onto.
1977 1BSD was released in late 1977.
1978 2BSD was released in mid-1978.
1979 The seventh edition of Unix was released in January 1979.
1979 3BSD released late 1979.
1979 SCO founded by Doug and Larry Michels as Unix porting and consulting company.
1980 4.0BSD released in October 1980.
1982 SGI introduced IRIX.
1982 HP-UX 1.0 was released.
1983 AT&T released its first version of System V.
1983 SCO delivered its first packaged Unix system called SCO Xenix System V for Intel 8086 and 8088 processor-based PCs.
1983 The GNU project was first announced by Richard Stallman on September 27, 1983.
1984 ULTRIX was first released.
1985 The eighth edition of Unix was released in February 1985.
1985 The GNU manifesto was published in the March 1985 issue of Dr. Dobb's Journal. The GNU project starts a year and a half later.
1986 The ninth edition of Unix was released in September 1986.
1987 Sun and AT&T laid the groundwork for business computing in the next decade with an alliance to develop Unix System V Release 4.
1988 HP-UX 2.0 released.
1988 HP-UX 3.0 released.
1989 SCO shipped SCO Unix System V/386, the first volume commercial product licensed by AT&T to use the Unix System trademark.
1989 HP-UX 7.0 released.
1989 The tenth edition of Unix released in October 1989.
1990 AIX, short for Advanced Interactive eXecutive, was first entered into the market by IBM February 1990.
1991 Sun unveiled Solaris 2 operating environment, specially tuned for symmetric multiprocessing.
1991 Linux was introduced by Linus Torvalds, a student in Finland.
1991 HP-UX 8.0 was released in 1991.
1991 BSD/386 ALPHA First code released to people outside BSDI 12/xx/1991.
1992 HP-UX 9.0 was released in 1992.
1993 NetBSD 0.8 was released on April 20, 1993.
1993 FreeBSD 1.0 was released in December 1993.
1994 Red Hat Linux was introduced in 1994.
1994 Caldera, Inc was founded in 1994 by Ransom Love and Bryan Sparks.
1994 The first version of SUSE Linux was released in March 1994.
1994 NetBSD 1.0 was released on October 26, 1994.
1995 FreeBSD 2.0 was released in January 1995.
1995 SCO acquired Unix Systems source technology business from Novell Corporation (which had acquired it from AT&T's Unix System Laboratories). SCO also acquired UnixWare 2 operating system from Novell.
1995 HP-UX 10.0 was released.
1995 4.4 BSD Lite Release 2, the true final distribution, was released by the CSRG in June 1995.
1996 KDE started to be developed by Matthias Ettrich.
1997 HP-UX 11.0 was released.
1997 Caldera shipped OpenLinux Standard 1.1 May 5, 1997, the second offering in Caldera's OpenLinux product line.
1998 IRIX 6.5 the fifth-generation of SGI Unix was released on July 6, 1998.
1998 SCO delivered UnixWare 7 operating system.
1998 Sun Solaris 7 operating system was released.
1998 FreeBSD 3.0 released on October 16, 1998.
2000 FreeBSD 4.0 released on March 13, 2000.
2000 Caldera Systems Inc. announced that Caldera Systems had agreed to acquire the SCO Server Software Division and the Professional Services Division.
2000 Red Hat released the first version of Red Hat Enterprise Linux on February 22, 2000, and was originally named Red Hat Linux Advanced Server.
2001 Linus Torvalds released version 2.4 of the Linux kernel source code on January 4, 2001.
2001 Microsoft filed a trademark suit against Lindows.com in December 2001.
2002 Gentoo 1.0, a Linux distribution, was released on March 31, 2002.
2003 The first version of Fedora, a Linux distribution, was released on November 6, 2003.
2004 Lindows changed its name to Linspire on April 14, 2004.
2004 Red Hat Linux 9.0, the last version of Red Hat Linux (commercial), reached end-of-life on April 30, 2004.
2004 The first version of Ubuntu was released on October 20, 2004.
2007 Google released the first version of the Android operating system for mobile devices on November 5, 2007. The Android OS is based on the Linux kernel.
2009 Chrome OS, a Linux-based operating system, was developed by Google on July 7, 2009. Chrome OS is designed to be used with a Chromebook.
2013 Valve released SteamOS, a gaming operating system based on the Linux distribution Debian, on December 13, 2013.
2016 A free subscription option for Red Hat Enterprise Linux was announced for developers and intended for non-production use only.

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