Unix, Linux, and variants

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Unix ABCs
Linux ABCs
MS-DOS vs. Linux and Unix
Unix and Linux commands
Unix Top 10 commands
Unix Shortcuts
Unix and Linux history
Unix and Linux tips
Unix and Linux links
Linux and Unix news
Linux Q&A

Unix ABCs

Unix, which is not an acronym, was developed by some of the members of the Multics team at the bell labs starting in the late 1960's by many of the same people who helped create the C programming language. The Unix today, however, is not just the work of a couple of programmers. Other organizations, institutes, and other individuals contributed significant additions to the system we now know today.

  • See additional Unix information and variants and information on the Unix definition.

Linux ABCs

Developed by Linus Torvalds and further elaborated by a number of developers throughout the world, Linux (lee'nuhks/ or /li'nuks/,_not_/li:'nuhks) is a freely available multitasking and multiuser operating system. From the outset, Linux was placed under General Public License (GPL). The system can be distributed, used, and expanded free of charge. In this way, developers have access to all the source codes, thus being able to integrate new functions or to find and eliminate programming bugs quickly. Thereby drivers for new adapters (SCSI controller, graphics cards, etc.) can be integrated very rapidly.

  • See additional Linux information and variants and information on the Linux definition.

MS-DOS vs. Linux and Unix

If you are able to navigate a computer using MS-DOS or the Windows command line, you should be able to quickly pick up on the navigation of Linux and Unix. In the below chart is a listing of common MS-DOS commands with their Linux and Unix counterpart.

MS-DOS Linux and Unix
attrib chmod
backup tar
dir ls
cls clear
copy cp
del rm
deltree rm -R
rmdir
edit vi
pico
format fdformat, mount, and umount
move and rename mv
Type less <file>
cd cd
chdir
more < file more file
md mkdir
win startx

Linux and Unix Commands

  * See the Linux and Unix overview page for a brief description on all commands on one page.
A a2p | ac | access | alias | agrep | apropos | apt-cache | apt-get | aptitude | ar | arch | arp | as | aspell | at | awk
B basename | bash | bc | bdiff | bfs | bg | biff | break | bs | bye
C cal | calendar | cancel | cat | cc | cd | chdir | checkeq | checknr | chfn | chgrp | chkey | chmod | chown | chroot | chsh | cksum | clear | cls | cmp | col | comm | compress | continue | copy | cp | cpio | crontab | crypt | csh | csplit | ctags | cu | curl | cut
D date | dc | dd | df | depmod | deroff | dhclient | diff | dig | dircmp | dirname | dmesg | dos2unix | dpkg | dpost | du
E echo | ed | edit | egrep | eject | elm | emacs | enable | env | eqn | ex | exit | expand | expr
F fc | fdisk | fg | fgrep | file | find | findsmb | finger | fmt | fold | for | foreach | fromdos | fsck | ftp | fuser
G gawk | getfacl | gethostname | gpasswd | gprof | grep | groupadd | groupdel | groupmod | gunzip | gview | gvim | gzip
H halt | hash | hashstat | head | help | history | host | hostid | hostname
I id | ifconfig | ifdown | ifup | ip | init | info | iostat | isalist | iwconfig
J jobs | join
K keylogin | kill | killall | ksh
L last | ld | ldd | less | lex | link | ln | lo | locate | login | logname | logout | losetup | lp | lpadmin | lpc | lpq | lpr | lprm | lpstat | ls | lsof | lzcat | lzma
M mach | mail | mailcompat | mailx | make | man | merge | mesg | mii-tool | mkdir | mkfs | modprobe | more | mount | mt | mv | myisamchk | mysql
N nc | neqn | netstat | newalias | newform | newgrp | nice | niscat | nischmod | nischown | nischttl | nisdefaults | nisgrep | nismatch | nispasswd | nistbladm | nl | nmap | nohup | nroff | nslookup
O od | on | onintr | optisa
P pack | pagesize | passwd | paste | pax | pcat | perl | pg | pgrep | pico | pine | ping | pkill | poweroff | pr | printenv | priocntl | printf | ps | pstree | pvs | pwd
Q quit
R rcp | readlink | reboot | red | rehash | remsh | renice | repeat | replace | rgview | rgvim | rlogin | rm | rmail | rmdir | rn | route | rpcinfo | rsh | rsync | rview | rvim
S s2p | sag | sar | scp | screen | script | sdiff | sed | sendmail | service | set | setenv | setfacl | sethostname | settime | sftp | sh | shred | shutdown | signals | sleep | slogin | smbclient | sort | spell | split | stat | stop | strftime | strip | stty | su | sudo | swapoff | swapon | sysinfo | sysklogd
T tabs | tac | tail | talk | tar | tbl | tcopy | tcpdump | tee | telinit | telnet | test | time | timex | todos | top | touch | tput | tr | traceroute | tree | troff | tty
U ulumask | unalias | uname | uncompress | unhash | uniq | unlzma | unmount | unpack | untar | until | unxz | unzip | uptime | useradd | userdel | usermod
V vacation | veditvgrind | vi | view | vim | vipw | vmstat
W w | wait | wall | wc | wget | whereis | whatis | which  | while| who | whoami | whois | write
X X | xargs | xfd | xhost | xlsfonts | xorg | xset | xterm | xrdb | xz | xzcat
Y yacc | yes | yppasswd | yum
Z zcat | zip | zipcloak | zipinfo | zipnote | zipsplit

* In addition to each of the above explanations, additional information about a specified command for your Unix or Linux variant can be found by using the man command.