Who invented the Internet?
A single person did not create the Internet we use today. Below is a listing of different people who have helped contribute to and develop the Internet.
In 1962, J.C.R. Licklider became the first Director of IPTO (Information Processing Technology Office) giving his vision of a galactic network. Also, with ideas from Licklider and Kleinrock, Robert Taylor helped create the idea of the network that became ARPANET.
The Internet as we know it today started being developed in the late 1960s in California in the United States.
In the summer of 1968, the NWG (Network Working Group) held its first meeting, chaired by Elmer Shapiro, at the SRI (Stanford Research Institute). Other attendees included Steve Carr, Steve Crocker, Jeff Rulifson, and Ron Stoughton. In the meeting, the group discussed solving issues related to getting hosts to communicate.
In December 1968, Elmer Shapiro with SRI released a report, "A Study of Computer Network Design Parameters." Based on this and earlier work by Paul Baran, Thomas Marill, and others, Lawrence Roberts and Barry Wessler created the IMP (Interface Message Processor) specifications. BBN (Bolt Beranek and Newman, Inc.) was later awarded the contract to design and build the IMP subnetwork.
The general public learns about the Internet
The UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles) released a press release introducing the public to the Internet on July 3, 1969.
First network equipment
On August 29, 1969, the first network switch and the first piece of network equipment called "IMP" (Interface Message Processor) was sent to UCLA.
On September 2, 1969, the first data moved from the UCLA host to the switch. The picture is Leonard Kleinrock next to the IMP.
The first message and network crash
On Friday, October 29, 1969, at 10:30 p.m., the first Internet message was sent from computer science Professor Leonard Kleinrock's laboratory at UCLA to a computer at SRI. The connection not only enabled the first transmission to be made but is also considered the first Internet backbone.
The first message to be distributed was LO, an attempt at LOGIN, by Charley S. Kline to log into the SRI computer from UCLA. However, the message could not be completed because the SRI system crashed. Shortly after the crash, the issue was resolved, and he could into the computer.
E-mail is developed
TCP is developed
Vinton Cerf and Robert Kahn designed TCP (transmission control protocol) in 1973 and later published it with the help of Yogen Dalal and Carl Sunshine in RFC 675, published in December 1974. Most people consider these two people the inventors of the Internet.
First commercial network
Ethernet is conceived
The modem is introduced
TCP/IP is created
In 1978, TCP split into TCP/IP, driven by Danny Cohen, David Reed, and John Shoch, to support real-time traffic. The creation of TCP/IP helped create UDP (user datagram protocol) and was later standardized into ARPANET on January 1, 1983. Today, TCP/IP is still the primary protocol used on the Internet.
DNS is introduced
Paul Mockapetris and Jon Postel introduced DNS (domain name system) in 1984 that also introduced the domain name system. The first Internet domain name, symbolics.com, was registered on March 15, 1985, by Symbolics, a Massachusetts computer company.
First commercial dial-up ISP
The first website, info.cern.ch, was developed by Tim Berners-Lee at CERN and published online on August 6, 1991.
Tim Berners-Lee introduced WWW (World Wide Web) to the public on August 6, 1991, and became publicly available on August 23, 1991. The WWW is what most people today consider the "Internet" or several sites and pages connected with hyperlinks. The Internet had hundreds of people who helped develop the standards and technologies used today, but without the WWW, the Internet would not be as popular today.
First graphical Internet browser
Mosaic is the first widely-used graphical World Wide Web browser, released on April 22, 1993, by the NCSA with the help of Marc Andreessen and Eric Bina. A big competitor to Mosaic was Netscape, which was released a year later. Today's Internet browsers (e.g., Internet Explorer, Chrome, Firefox, etc.) got their inspiration from the Mosaic browser.
Originally known as oak, Java is a programming language developed by James Gosling and others at Sun Microsystems in 1995. Today, Java is still used to create Internet applications and other programs.
That is a great overview, but who are the key inventors of the Internet?
If you had to isolate the key inventors of the Internet, it would be two people: Vinton Cerf and Robert Kahn. The WWW, which is different from the Internet, but what most people think of as the "Internet," was invented later by Tim Berners-Lee.